Doctors encounter with three issues about cancer patients: diagnosis, screening, and treatment. Based on the doctor's diagnosis of cancer, different stages of treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are performed on the patient.
Cancer screening is a type of cancer examination before the onset of symptoms in a person that helps to diagnose and detect cancer early. Basically, the main purpose of screening is to detect cancer in the early stages, when there are no signs and symptoms, and the treatment process will be shorter and more effective. And survival increases as well. Screening or chek-up is so important that the World Health Organization has introduced it as one of the most important weapons in the fight against cancer. (Screening cancers: breast cancer, colon, cervical cancer, prostate cancer)
The world's most common screening tests include:
1. Mammography: To diagnose malignant breast tumors. Mammography should be started annually from the age of 40 and every 3 years after the age of 70. Under the age of 40, ultrasound is a good alternative to screening at this age.
2. Pap smear test: It is done to diagnose cervical cancer that should be done annually in women up to the age of 60. And after the age of 60 there is no need for screening.
3. Colonoscopy: To identify polyps and intestinal masses. Colonoscopy screening is done between the ages of 50 and 70 and should be repeated at least once every 10 years.
4. Fecal occult blood test (FOBT): This test is recommended once a year from the age of 50. This test is used to diagnose polyps and cancers in the early stages.
5. PSA test: Used to diagnose prostate cancer.
All of the above are done for screening and diagnosis of cancer in Mortaz Hospital.
Methods of diagnosing cancer in symptomatic patients:
1. Blood test - tumor markers
2. Chest radiography or CT scan of the chest: Used in patients with suspected lung cancer or lung metastasis.
4. Ultrasound: A simple way to find hidden malignancies of the abdomen and pelvic cavity and liver cancers.
5. Sampling: An outpatient surgery used for people who have been diagnosed with a mass on an ultrasound or CT scan.
Endoscopy: Used to look at the stomach and esophagus to find cancerous lesions. Cystoscopy is used to look at the bladder to check for malignancy.
Bronchoscopy: A tool used to see the airways and lungs and to sample lung masses.
Colonoscopy: Used to examine the large intestine.
CT scan: Used to find tumors inside the body cavities. It is used to diagnose cancers of the lung, brain, head, neck and abdomen.
Ultrasound: A non-invasive method for examining internal organs.
Other imaging methods such as barium swallow, barium enema, and LNP are used to diagnose gastrointestinal tumors.
Laparoscopy: It is done by making a small hole in the abdominal wall, which is one of the methods to diagnose a mass.
MRI: A very good tool for diagnosing some tumors, including brain tumors, pituitary masses, spinal masses, and bone and vertebral lesions.
Biopsy: A sample of a mass that is sent to a pathologist and is used to distinguish a malignant mass from a non-malignant one.
All these events are available to doctors and patients to diagnose cancer in Mortaz Hospital.
Treatment: At Mortaz Hospital, all types of cancers are treated, including cancer surgery and chemotherapy.
Biopsy of the masses is also done by ultrasound or CT scan. Also, in cases of suspected cancer that are not definitively diagnosed, the pathology specimen is examined with a device called Frozen at the same time as surgery to determine if the tumor is malignant.