Thyroidectomy is a type of surgery in which all or part of the thyroid gland is removed. The thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck, is responsible for secreting hormones that regulate how the body consumes and stores energy. In fact, the thyroid gland is responsible for regulating metabolism and regulates various aspects of metabolism from cardiac activity to the amount and manner of calories consumed. Thyroidectomy is performed to treat thyroid diseases such as cancer, non-cancerous enlargement of the thyroid or goiter, and hyperthyroidism. The amount of thyroid resection in thyroidectomy depends on the cause of the surgery. If only part of the patient's thyroid gland is removed during thyroidectomy, a partial thyroidectomy is performed and the thyroid gland returns to normal function after surgery. However, if the patient's gland is completely removed, a total thyroidectomy is performed and the patient must begin hormone therapy to compensate for the normal function of the thyroid gland.

What is the cause of thyroidectomy?

Thyroidectomy is performed for the following reasons:

  • Thyroid cancer: The most common cause of thyroidectomy is cancer. Removing most of the thyroid gland is a common treatment for people with thyroid cancer.
  • Non-cancerous enlargement of the thyroid or goiter: A thyroidectomy is used to treat patients with goiter who have difficulty in swallowing or breathing, or who have hyperthyroidism due to goiter.
  • Hyperthyroidism: This is a condition in which a person's thyroid gland produces more hormone than normal. If antithyroid drugs do not regulate the thyroid gland well, surgery may be used to remove all or part of the thyroid gland or to treat it with radioactive iodine.

Thyroidectomy surgery

Thyroidectomy is usually performed under general anesthesia. Therefore, the patient is not conscious during surgery. The surgical team monitors the patient's heart rate, blood pressure and normal oxygen levels during the operation. Naturally, before thyroidectomy surgery, the doctor gives the necessary instructions to the patient. For example, it may be necessary for a patient to avoid eating and drinking certain foods for a certain period of time before having a thyroidectomy. In thyroidectomy, the surgeon makes a small incision in the center of the neck according to the technique used. If a thyroidectomy is performed because of thyroid cancer, the surgeon may also remove the lymph nodes around the thyroid. Thyroidectomy is usually performed in a few hours. Swallowing is usually somewhat difficult after surgery. In this case, the doctor recommends the use of cold drinks. Because it helps to alleviate this problem. It is also better to use a diet with soft ingredients. In order to reduce the swelling of the vocal cords, it is also recommended seriously to speak more slowly and to avoid speaking loudly.

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